This is not the official classification of ADD or ADHD, but an "easy reference" summary of ADD / ADHD, by Christopher Green (1997). It is also important to note that since then, much research has been done and have broadened our perspective and understanding of ADD and ADHD.
Christopher Green 1 described ADHD by dividing ADHD in four parts:
The first two parts of ADHD are
1. ADHD : Hyperactive-impulsive behaviour
2. ADHD : Attention deficit-learning problems
The third part
3. A co-morbid condition
- e.g.. Oppositional Defiant Disorder
- Learning Disabilities
- Conduct Disorder
- Poor coordination
- Depression, anxiety
- Obsessive Compulsive Disorder
- Bipolar Disorder
The fourth part
4. The Child's living environment
- Supportive parenting vs hostile, critical parenting
- This is why it is important for parents to diagnose ADHD, because critical parenting will worsen the effects of ADHD, especially in the adolescent years. NB: This is not permissive parenting. Discipline and structure is pivotal to the ADHD, but in a supportive way rather than being critical.
- Supportive schooling vs un-accepting education
- An extended stable family vs isolation and rejection
According to the American Psychiatric Association, 3 primary symptoms are defined in the “Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM V)”.
- impulsiveness and
Lets briefly explain all these types and definitions:
- ADHD predominantly inattentive type
(predominant problems of attention, learning and executive control)
- ADHD predominantly hyperactive-impulsive type
(hyperactive, impulsive, poor self control of behaviour. Behaviour Inhibition Disorder)
- A comorbid condition
ADHD doesn't cause any of the co-morbid conditions, but it appears as if many of these co-morbid conditions coexists with ADHD.
- Living Environment
In the past, bad parenting was to blame for ADHD children in schools, which obviously either made parents more strict and unsupportive or left parents with a feeling of guilt and hopelessness.
Disclaimer: Since the writing of this article, ongoing research might have changed what we know about ADD/ADHD. For one thing, the classification has changed since DSM-IV and Barkley has another viewpoint on the classification for ADHD. See updated criteria for diagnosis HERE
- Green, C. (1997). Understanding ADHD